Vegder's Blog

October 19, 2018

Frogs and toads in East Asian art, but mainly those in Japan

Walker Evans wrote [of photography] –
For the thousandth time,
it must be said that pictures speak for themselves,
wordlessly, visually, or they fail.

The same could be said of the images on this page.

The Freer/Sackler Galleries
Washington, D. C.

To the untrained (unfamiliar, unschooled, untaught, unpracticed, unitiated and/or inexperienced) eye, this golden ornament made for mid-15th to 16th century Chinese headdress, looks damaged, like it is missing a back limb. But it isn’t. It is just as intended. A three-legged toad with a magical/poisonous (?) vapor escaping from its mouth in a form similar to the licks of a flame.

Japanese toad magic was amazing

Iwatetsu Hoin and his toad by Toyokuni III from 1861
Tokyo Metropolitan Library

The case of Tenjiku Tokubei (天竺徳兵衛)

Tenjiku Tokubei means ‘Tokubei from India’. A major play about him, Tenjiku Tokubei Ikoku-Banashi debuted in 1804. Earlier plays were based on the account of an Edo adventurer Takamatsu Tokubei who traveled to India and returned to Japan on a Dutch ship in 1633. “For decades, these plays had been performed in summer as so-called water plays (mizu kyōgen), which used real water to distract audiences from the heat. Nanboku, the playwright, also used water and added numerous spectacular tricks (keren) to emphasize his transformation of the tale into a, at times, chilling ghost play (kaiden mono), in tune with the summer Obon (bon) festival in which the spirits of the dead were briefly welcomed home by their families.”

Tenjiku Tokubei on a giant toad by Kuniyoshi from ca. 1825-30
(I found this example at Wikimedia Commons.)

“The success of the 1804 production of Tokubei from India not only resulted in a series of revivals but also ushered in a whole slew of ghost plays. Previously ghosts had appeared in kabuki to express the yearning of a departed soul. Nanboku — inspired by the new taste of theatregoers for the bloodthirsty and bizarre, an effect of the Bunka-Bunsei (Kasei) era’s (1804-1830) social decadence — wrote a series of ghost plays that aimed to terrify audiences…”

Tenjiku Tokubei by Kunisada from 1841
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

“The play is renowned for its spectacular tricks and unusual costumes, which represent magic and foreign influences on Japan. The play is also unusual for the multiple and rapid scene changes that contribute to the sense of supernatural uncertainty.”

I’m sorry, but it doesn’t get better than this –

Tenjiku Tokubei by Toyokuni III in 1860
Waseda University

Tokubei doesn’t realize it but he is the son of a Korean warrior who is hell-bent on killing the shogun. His father is in the possession of several powerful tools which help him perform magical feats. Before killing himself the father hands off these magical tools to Tokubei. The spectacles that follow in this play are astounding.

But, of course, there is always this one by Kuniyasu –

Tenjiku Tokubei by Utagawa Kuniyasu (1794-1832 – 歌川国安) – early 19th century
Waseda University

“The play is remarkable not only for preposterous magic and visually brilliant special effects, but also for the dramatic concept of supernatural chaos…” Source and quotes above are from: Kabuki Plays On Stage: Darkness and Desire, 1804-1864, volume 3, pp. 33-35.

Kunichika triptych from 1883 of Tenjiku Tokubei and his toad
Waseda University

‘Frog Magic of Tenjiku Tokubei’ by Masatoshi from May 1973
Los Angeles County Museum of Art

Tokubei with the head of Sōkan by Toyokuni III from 1859
Waseda University

“…Yoshioka Sōkan, steals the shogun’s precious sword, Namikirimaru, and plans the overthrow of the country. During his machinations, he accidentally encounters his son, Tenjiku Tokubei, who receives the sword and his father’s magical powers, while Sōkan kills himself.” Quoted from the New Kabuki Encyclopedia.

“…Tokubei, mounted on a gigantic, fire-breathing toad,
appears with Sōkan’s head dangling from his mouth.”

Okay, okay… so the head is not held by his mouth, but use your imagination. The crowds must have gone wild watching this production.

The Jiraiya myth

Jiraiya sitting atop the toad in the center panel in battle with Orochimaru, also in the center
Kuniyoshi triptych from 1852
The British Museum

Jiraiya standing atop a snow-toad spitting flames from its mouth
Toyokuni III from 1852
Waseda University

Sometimes you can stand or ride on a toad, but at other times the toad can ride on you

Taira Tarō Yoshikado and his toad by Toyokuni III from 1859
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

The Shōgun Tarō Yoshikado (将軍太郎良門) by Toyokuni III from 1859
The National Museums of Scotland

Turning boulders into toads

Ogata Rikimaru turning boulders into toads by Hokushū from ca. 1830
The Achenbach Foundation


Please come back soon and often
because I have just started this
post and there is much more
to come.

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